Applies to: Exchange Server 2013
Topic Last Modified: 2012-12-10
You can deploy Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 in a virtualized environment. This topic provides an overview of the scenarios that are supported for deploying Exchange 2013 on hardware virtualization software.
The following terms are used in this discussion of Exchange virtualization:
- Cold boot When bringing a system from a
power-off state into a clean start of the operating system, the
action is a cold boot. No operating system state has been
persisted in this case.
- Saved state When a virtual machine is
powered off, hypervisors typically have the ability to save the
state of the virtual machine, so when the machine is powered back
on, it returns to that saved state rather than going through
a cold boot startup.
- Planned migration When a system
administrator initiates the move of a virtual machine from one
hypervisor host to another, the action is a planned
migration. The action could be a single migration, or a system
administrator could configure automation to move the virtual
machine on a timed basis. A planned migration could also be the
result of some other event that occurs in the system, other than
hardware or software failure. The key point is the Exchange virtual
machine is operating normally and needs to be relocated for some
reason. This relocation can be done via technology, like Live
Migration or vMotion. However, if the Exchange virtual machine or
the hypervisor host where the virtual machine is located
experiences some sort of failure condition, the outcome isn't
characterized as a planned migration.
Requirements for hardware virtualization
Microsoft supports Exchange 2013 in production on hardware virtualization software only when all the following conditions are true:
- The hardware virtualization software is running one of the
- Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V technology
- Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2
- Windows Server 2012
- Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2012
- Any third-party hypervisor that has been validated under the
Windows Server Virtualization Validation
Note: Deployment of production Exchange servers on Windows Azure virtual machines isn't supported.
- Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V technology
- The Exchange guest virtual machine has the following
- It's running Exchange 2013.
- It's deployed on Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 (or later versions)
or on Windows Server 2012.
- It's running Exchange 2013.
For deployments of Exchange 2013:
- All Exchange 2013 server roles are supported in a virtual
- Exchange server virtual machines (including Exchange Mailbox
virtual machines that are part of a database availability group, or
DAG), may be combined with host-based failover clustering and
migration technology, as long as the virtual machines are
configured such that they won't save and restore state on disk when
moved or taken offline. All failover activity occurring at the
hypervisor level must result in a cold boot when the virtual
machine is activated on the target node. All planned migration must
either result in shutdown and cold boot, or an online migration
that makes use of a technology like Hyper-V Live Migration.
Hypervisor migration of virtual machines is supported by the
hypervisor vendor; therefore, you must ensure that your hypervisor
vendor has tested and supports migration of Exchange virtual
machines. Microsoft supports Hyper-V Live Migration of these
- Only management software (for example, antivirus software,
backup software, or virtual machine management software) can be
deployed on the physical root machine. No other server-based
applications (for example, Exchange, SQL Server, Active Directory,
or SAP) should be installed on the root machine. The root machine
should be dedicated to running guest virtual machines.
- Some hypervisors include features for taking snapshots of
virtual machines. Virtual machine snapshots capture the state of a
virtual machine while it's running. This feature enables you to
take multiple snapshots of a virtual machine and then revert the
virtual machine to any of the previous states by applying a
snapshot to the virtual machine. However, virtual machine snapshots
aren't application aware, and using them can have unintended and
unexpected consequences for a server application that maintains
state data, such as Exchange. As a result, making virtual machine
snapshots of an Exchange guest virtual machine isn't supported.
- Many hardware virtualization products allow you to specify the
number of virtual processors that should be allocated to each guest
virtual machine. The virtual processors located in the guest
virtual machine share a fixed number of logical processors in the
physical system. Exchange supports a virtual processor-to-logical
processor ratio no greater than 2:1, although we recommend a ratio
of 1:1. For example, a dual processor system using quad core
processors contains a total of 8 logical processors in the host
system. On a system with this configuration, don't allocate more
than a total of 16 virtual processors to all guest virtual machines
- When calculating the total number of virtual processors
required by the root machine, you must also account for both I/O
and operating system requirements. In most cases, the equivalent
number of virtual processors required in the root operating system
for a system hosting Exchange virtual machines is 2. This value
should be used as a baseline for the root operating system virtual
processor when calculating the overall ratio of physical cores to
virtual processors. If performance monitoring of the root operating
system indicates you're consuming more processor utilization than
the equivalent of 2 processors, you should reduce the count of
virtual processors assigned to guest virtual machines accordingly
and verify that the overall virtual processor-to-physical core
ratio is no greater than 2:1.
- The operating system for an Exchange guest machine must use a
disk that has a size equal to at least 15 gigabytes (GB) plus
the size of the virtual memory that's allocated to the guest
machine. This requirement is necessary to account for the operating
system and paging file disk requirements. For example, if the guest
machine is allocated 16 GB of memory, the minimum disk space
needed for the guest operating system disk is 31 GB.
In addition, it's possible that guest virtual machines may be prevented from directly communicating with Fibre Channel or SCSI host bus adapters (HBAs) installed in the root machine. In this event, you must configure the adapters in the root machine's operating system and present the logical unit numbers (LUNs) to guest virtual machines as either a virtual disk or a pass-through disk.
Root machine storage requirements
The minimum disk space requirements for each root machine are as follows:
- Root machines in some hardware virtualization applications may
require storage space for an operating system and its components.
For example, when running Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V, you
will need a minimum of 10 GB to meet the requirements for
Windows Server 2008. For more details, see Windows Server 2008 R2 System Requirements. Additional
storage space is also required to support the operating system's
paging file, management software, and crash recovery (dump)
- Some hypervisors maintain files on the root machine that are
unique to each guest virtual machine. For example, in a Hyper-V
environment, a temporary memory storage file (BIN file) is created
and maintained for each guest machine. The size of each BIN file is
equal to the amount of memory allocated to the guest machine. In
addition, other files may also be created and maintained on the
host machine for each guest machine.
Exchange storage requirements
Requirements for storage connected to a virtualized Exchange server are as follows:
- Each Exchange guest machine must be allocated sufficient
storage space on the root machine for the fixed disk that contains
the guest's operating system, any temporary memory storage files in
use, and related virtual machine files that are hosted on the host
machine. In addition, for each Exchange guest machine, you must
also allocate sufficient storage for the message queues and
sufficient storage for the databases and log files on Mailbox
- The storage used by the Exchange guest machine for storage of
Exchange data (for example, mailbox databases and transport queues)
can be virtual storage of a fixed size (for example, fixed virtual
hard disks (VHDs) in a Hyper-V environment), SCSI pass-through
storage, or Internet SCSI (iSCSI) storage. Pass-through storage is
storage that's configured at the host level and dedicated to one
guest machine. All storage used by an Exchange guest machine for
storage of Exchange data must be block-level storage because
Exchange 2013 doesn't support the use of network attached storage
(NAS) volumes, other than in the SMB 3.0 scenario outlined later in
this topic. Also, NAS storage that's presented to the guest as
block-level storage via the hypervisor isn't supported.
- Fixed VHDs may be stored on SMB 3.0 files that are backed by
block-level storage if the guest machine is running on Windows
Server 2012 Hyper-V (or a later version of Hyper-V). The only
supported usage of SMB 3.0 file shares is for storage of fixed
VHDs. Such file shares can't be used for direct storage of Exchange
data. When using SMB 3.0 file shares to store fixed VHDs, the
storage backing the file share should be configured for high
availability to ensure the best possible availability of the
- Storage used by Exchange should be hosted in disk spindles that
are separate from the storage that's hosting the guest virtual
machine's operating system.
- Configuring iSCSI storage to use an iSCSI initiator inside an
Exchange guest virtual machine is supported. However, there is
reduced performance in this configuration if the network stack
inside a virtual machine isn't full-featured (for example, not all
virtual network stacks support jumbo frames).
Exchange memory requirements and recommendations
Some hypervisors have the ability to oversubscribe or dynamically adjust the amount of memory available to a specific guest machine based on the perceived usage of memory in the guest machine as compared to the needs of other guest machines managed by the same hypervisor. This technology makes sense for workloads in which memory is needed for brief periods of time and then can be surrendered for other uses. However, it doesn't make sense for workloads that are designed to use memory on an ongoing basis. Exchange, like many server applications with optimizations for performance that involve caching of data in memory, is susceptible to poor system performance and an unacceptable client experience if it doesn't have full control over the memory allocated to the physical or virtual machine on which it's running. As a result, using dynamic memory features for Exchange isn't supported.
Host-based failover clustering and migration for Exchange
The following are answers to some frequently asked questions about host-based failover clustering and migration technology with Exchange 2013 DAGs:
- Does Microsoft support third-party migration
Microsoft can't make support statements for the integration of third party hypervisor products using these technologies with Exchange, because these technologies aren't part of the Server Virtualization Validation Program (SVVP). The SVVP covers the other aspects of Microsoft support for third-party hypervisors. You need to ensure that your hypervisor vendor supports the combination of their migration and clustering technology with Exchange. If your hypervisor vendor supports their migration technology with Exchange, Microsoft supports Exchange with their migration technology.
- How does Microsoft define host-based failover
Host-based failover clustering refers to any technology that provides the automatic ability to react to host-level failures and start affected virtual machines on alternate servers. Use of this technology is supported given that, in a failure scenario, the virtual machine is coming up from a cold boot on the alternate host. This technology helps to make sure that the virtual machine never comes up from a saved state that's persisted on disk because it will be stale relative to the rest of the DAG members.
- What does Microsoft mean by migration support?
Migration technology refers to any technology that allows a planned move of a virtual machine from one host machine to another host machine. This move could also be an automated move that occurs as part of resource load balancing, but it isn't related to a failure in the system. Migrations are supported as long as the virtual machines never come up from a saved state that's persisted on disk. This means that technology that moves a virtual machine by transporting the state and virtual machine memory over the network with no perceived downtime is supported for use with Exchange. A third-party hypervisor vendor must provide support for the migration technology, while Microsoft provides support for Exchange when used in this configuration.